Investigation on Microstructure and Wear Resistance of the Plain Carbon Steel Hardfaced by the Fe-Cr-C Electrodes Containing Mo, W, V Elements

Document Type: Original Article


1 Center for Advanced Engineering Research, Majlesi Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran.

2 Department of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran.

3 Department of Materials Engineering, Bandarabbas Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bandarabbas, Iran.


In this investigate, plain carbon steel cladded by SMAW in single, two and three- pass with two hardface electrodes containing  molybdenum, tungsten, and vanadium. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, wear tests and microhardness test were carried out to evaluate the microstructure and wear properties of hardface layers. The results indicated that by increasing of molybdenum concentration in hardface layer, M6C and M7C3 carbides were appeared in the microstructure. Moreover, by increasing the number of hardfaced layers and reducing dilution, the concentration of alloying elements, and the carbides coarser increased at microstructure. Also by increasing the percentage of the molybdenum the hardness of layers increased up to the 61 HRC and 1540 Vickers at the three-pass.  In addition by increasing the number of passes the wear resistance of the hardfaced layers increased.


[1] S.O.Yilma, Surf. Coat. Technol., 194(2005), 175.

[2] J. Cheng, B. Xu, X. Liang, Y. Wu and Z. Liu , J. Uni. Sci. Technol. B, 15(2008), 451.

[3] W. Zmudzinski, and M. Ezekiel, Mater. Forum, 30(2006), 333.

[4] J. R. Davis, Surf. Eng. for Corr. and Wear Resist., ASM, 2001, 530.

[5] A.S. Doliviera, J.J. Tigrinho, and R.R. Takeyama, Surf. Coat. Technol., 202(2008), 4660.

[6] D.K. Dwiredi, Mater. Sci. Technol., 20(2004), 1326.

[7] R. Choteborsky, P. Hrabe, and M. Muller, Surf. Coat. Technol., 54(2008), 192.

[8] M.F. Buchely, J.C. Gutierrez, L.M. Leon, and A. Toro, Wear, 259(2005), 52.

[9] C. Fan, M. Chen, C. Chang and W. Wu, Surf. Coat. Technol., 201(2006), 908.

[10] M. Shamanian, Gh. Azimi, and P. Firozi, Surf. Eng., 6(2012), 15.

[11] ASTM E18, Standard test method for Rockwell Hardness and Rockwell Superficial Hardness of Metallice Materials, Annual Book of Standards, 3 , (2016(.

[12] ASTM E384, Standard test method for Knoop and Vickers microhardness of Materials, Annual Book of Standards, 3, )2016(.

[13] ASTM G99, Standard test method for measuring abrasion using the dry sand/rubber wheel apparatus, Annual Book of Standards, )2001(.

[15] X. Wang, F. Han, S. Qu, and Z. Zou, Surf. Coat. Technol., 202(2008), 1502.

[16] J. Chen, C. Hsieh, P. Hua, C. Chang, and C. Lin, Mater. Sci. Eng., 19(2013), 93.

[17] J. Kim, Ko. K. Hee, G. Kim, and S. Kim, Wear, 267(2009), 1415.