Environmental Friendly Soil Stabilization Materials Available in Iran

Document Type : Review Article


School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Soft soil is one of the major challenges in engineering projects. Improving soil’s engineering properties is called soil stabilization. This paper focuses on soil stabilization materials and methods thereby soils and related materials and structures are made stronger and more durable. Soil stabilization involves the using of stabilizing agents, binder materials, in soft soils to improve its geotechnical properties such as bearing capacity, compressibility, shear strength, permeability and durability. Using of stabilized soils in place with natural aggregates and structure of soil has great environmental and economic advantages. Investigation for selection the best soil stabilizers to overcome geotechnical problems occur by the weak soils is one of the main concerns to attain the required soil engineering parameters by considering the cost, efficiency and the effect to the environment. This paper reviews the application of different materials and additives used in soil improvement in geotechnical projects in Iran and present their effects on soil engineering parameters.


[1] H.F. Winterkorn , Soil Stabilization, “Foundation Engineering Handbook”. Chapter 8, Winterkorn and Fang,
eds., Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, )1975(, 312.
[2] S.Z. Sharifah Zaliha, H. Kamarudin, A.M. Mustafa Al Bakri, M. Binhussain, M.S. Siti Salwa, Aust. J. Basic &
Appl. Sci., 7(5)(2013), 258.
[3] Experiments on Soil Stabilization In Iran, Housing and Home Finance Agency, International Housing
Service, Ekistics, 7(42)(APRIL 1959), 330.
[4] P. Sherwood, Soil stabilization with Cement and Lime. State of the Art Review. London: Transport Research
Laboratory, HMSO (1993).
[5] K.N.Derucher , G.P.Korfitatis , A.S.Ezeldin , Engineers. Prentice-Hall.
[6] H. Afrin. A Review on Different Types Soil Stabilization Techniques. Inter. J. Trans. Eng. Technol.,
3(2)(2017), 19.
[7]  S.Dhakar , S.K. Jain, Inter. J. Sci. Res. (IJSR) 5(6), (2016) 545.
[8] Euro Soil Stab , Development of Design and Construction Methods to Stabilize Soft Organic Soils: Design
Guide for Soft Soil Stabilization. CT97-0351, European Commission, Industrial and Materials Technologies
Programme (Rite-EuRam III) Bryssel, (2002).
[9] R.Hicks, Alaska Soil Stabilization Design Guide, (2002).
[10] S.Y.Saitoh, Suzuki, K.Shirai, ,  Proc. of the 11th ISCMFE, San Francisco, 3(1985), 1745.
[11] Al-Tabbaa, A. and Evans, W. C. Stabilization-Solidification Treatment and Remediation: Part I: Binders
and Technologies-Basic Principal. Proceedings of the International Conference on Stabilization/Solidification
Treatment and Remediation(2005), 367.Cambridge, UK: Balkerma.
[12] A. Pandey, A.Rabbani, Inter. J. Civil Eng. Technol. , 8(6)(2017), 316.
[13] A.S. Negi, M. Faizan, D.P. Siddharth, R. Singh ,Inter. J. Innovat. Res. Sci. Eng. Technol., 2(2)(2013), 448.
[14] C.D.F. Rogers, and S. Glendinning, Modification of Clay Soils using Lime. In C.A. Rogers (Ed.),
Proceeding of the Seminar Held at Loughborough University on Lime Stabilization (1993), 99. London:
Thomas Telford.
[15] Inc.Keller , Improvement of Weak Soils by the Deep Soil Mixing Method. Keller Bronchure,
[16] O.G. Ingles, and J.B. Metcalf, Soil Stabilization: Principles and Practice. Butterworths, Sydney,(1972).
[17] R. Deby, Y. Linsha, Preethy, V. Dharanya, Vinodhini and C. Pavithra, Inter. J. of Civil Eng. Technol,
7(6)(2016), 156.
[18] F. Michael, P.E. Conway, J. Soil Conta. , 2(2)(1993), 157.
[19] A.P. Chritz “Performance Evaluation of Mixed-in-Place Bituminous Stabilized Shoulder Gravel” Michigan
Department of State Highways., (2006).
[20] E. Eka, N. Putri, S.V. Kameswara Rao, M.A. Mannan, Evaluation of Modulus of Elasticity and Modulus of
Subgrade Reaction of Soils Using CBR Test, J. Civil Eng. Res. , 2(1)(2012), 34.
[21] Y. Huan, K. Siripun, P. Jitsangiam and H. Nikraz , Sci. Res. Essays Vol. 5(23), (2010) 3687.
[22] S.M.Marandi, P.Safapour , American J. Appl. Sci., 6(1)(2009).
[23] M. Shojaei, A. Baghini, B. Ismail, M. Kheradmand, H. Hafezi and R.A. Almansob, Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng.
Technol., 5(24)(2013), 5652.
[24] M.R. Abisha, S. Anushia, J. Jenitha singh, S.Dynisha, S.A.Lavanya, , IJARIIE, Vol-3 Issue-5(2017), 1476.
[25] N. Khalid , Effect of Nanoclay in Soft Soil Stabilization , InCIEC, Springer, Singapore. (2014).
[26] K.M.A. Hossain , L. Mol, Const. Build. Mater. 25(2011), 3495.
[27] Amer Ali Al-Rawas, A.W. Hago , Hilal Al-Sarmi, Build. Envir. ,40(2005), 681.
[28] A. Senol, T.B. Edil, M.S. Bin-Shafique, H.A. Acosta, C.H. Benson ,Soft Subgrades’ Stabilization by using
Various Fly Ashes, Resources, Conservation and Recycling Volume 46, Issue 4, April(2006), 365.
[29] D. White, Fly Ash Soil Stabilizationfor Non-Uniform Subgrade Soils. IHRB Project TR-461, FHWA Project 4
[30] A. Shelke, D. Murty, Reduction of Swelling Pressure of Expansive Soils using EPS Geofoam. In:
Proceedings of Indian Geotechnical Conference, (2010), 495.
[31] S.B. Ikizler, M. Aytekin, M. Vekli, Reduction of Swelling Pressure of Expansive Soil Stabilized using EPS
Geofoam and Sand, Geosynthetics Inter. 16(3)(2009), 216.
[32] A. Shelke, D. Murty, “Swelling Pressure of Expansive Soil Stabilized Using Eps Geofoam” Proceedings of
Indian Geotechnical Conference December 15-17,2011, Kochi (No 2011 H-128).
[33] M.A. Rahgozar, M. Saberian, Jie Li , Trans. Geotech., 14(2018), 52.
[34] M. Alhassan, AU J.T., 11(4)(2008), 246.