Improvement of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Manganese Steels by Adding Boron Alloying Element

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Materials Science, Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saveh, Iran


Improvement of the mechanical properties and microstructures of industrial parts can improve working conditions, working life and reduce rejection rates and consequent, improve environmental effects of industrial developments. In this paper, the effect of Boron content in chemical composition ofManganese steel on improvement of microstructure and mechanical properties of manganese steels has been investigated. This improvement can reduce the consumption and rejection rate of castings and consequent environmental protection. The microstructure was investigated using optical, SEM and FESEM microscopy. In addition, mechanical tests such as tensile test, hardness and impact tests were performed on the samples. Microscopic investigations showed the presence of 0.007% Boron prevents of formation carbides in grain boundaries and also reduces the carbide sizes and cause uniform distribution. In the presence of Boron, annealing solution heat treatment, improve the morphology of carbides and modified it to spherical shape. The results of the research show that by increasing  0.007% Boron, fine and spherical carbides will form in austenitic microstructure of manganese steel which increase the hardness, toughness, tensile strength and modify carbide distribution and morphology in both heat treated and non-heat treated conditions. This results can improve casting operation time and rejection rates of castings in wear conditions as an environmental friendly material


[1] Akeel D. Subhi and Omar A. Abdulrazaq, Eng. Technol., 25(6)2007.
[2] A. K. Srivastava and K. Das, J. Mater. Sci 43 (2008), 5654.
[3] Bouaziz, S. Allain, C. P. Scott, D. Cugy, Mater. Sci., 15(2011), 141.
[4] F. Haakonsen, “Optimizing of Strømhard austenitic manganese steel” Thesis for the degree of Philosophiae Doctor Trondheim, May 2009.
[5] Hull D. In: Deformation twinning, proceedings of a metallurgical society conference. Gainesville, Floride, Gordon and Breach Science, New-York; 1964.
[6] J. O. Agunsoye1, S. A. Balogun1, D. E. Esezobor1 and M. Nganbe, Scripta. Mater. 12(42)2000, 1107.
[7] M. Abbasia, S. Kheirandisha,b, Y. Kharrazi a, J. Hedjazi, Mater. Sci. Eng.  513(514)(2009), 72.
[8] S. W. Bhero, B. Nyembe, and K. Lentsoana, International Conference on Mining, Mineral Processing and Metallurgical Engineering (ICMMME’2013) April 15-16, 2013.
[9] S. A. Balogun, D. E. Esezobor, J. O. Agunsoye, J.  Minerals Mater. Character. Eng., 7(3)2008, 277.
[10] W. Zhang, J. Wu, Y. Wen, J. Ye, N. Li, J. Mater. Sci., 45(2010), 3433.
[11] X. Jingpei, J. Qichuuan, H. Zhenming, L. Quanshun and K. Sommer, Chin. J. Met. Sci. Technol., (8)1992.
[12] Ranjan TV, Sharma CP and Sharma A. Heat treatment principles and techniques. New Delhi: Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited; 1999.
[13] Perry RH and Green DW. Solid-solid operation and processing. In: Chemical engineers handbook. 8th ed. New York: Mc Graw-Hill Companies; 2008, 56.
[14] T. Jing and F. Zhang, Mater. Letter., 31(3-6)1997, 275.
[15] R. W. Smith, A. DeMonte and W. B. F. Mackay, (153-154)2004, 589.
[16] H. Li, J. Zhihao, L. Jinde and T. Jun, Modulated. Mater. Des., 23(8)2002, 717.
[17] B. Emin, A. Frazal, Khalid and L. Chritopher, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 147(2), 2004, 145.
[18] C. Efstathion and H. Sehitoglu, Scripta. Mater. 59(10), 2008, 1103.
[19] C. Efstathion and H. Sehitoglu, Acta. Mater., 58(5)2009, 1479.
 [20] Dobrzanki LA, Grajcar A and Borek W., J. of Mater. Manuf. Eng., 31(2), 2008, 218.
[21] A. García, A. Varela, L. García, M. C. S. Río, Naya and M. Suárez, Comparing. Wear., (258)2005, 203.
[22] X. Yunhan, F. Liang, C. Qihong and Z. Jinhua, Mater. Sci. Forum., (117)2005, 475.
[23] Majid A, Shahram K, Yousef K and Jalal H, Wear., 268(1-2)2010, 202.
[24] S. Kuyucak and R. Zavadil, AFS Trans., (108)2000, 120.